Journals

Indigenous Management: Theories & Practices

Vol. VI, No. 1 | May 2015

Contents

Salesian Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. VI, No. 1. (May 2015)

Indigenous Management: Theories & Practices

ISSN: 0976-1861

DOI: 10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.i-vi

Section: Contents

CONTENTS

Salesian Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences, Vol. VI, No. 1 (May 2015)

ISSN: 0976-1861 | DOI: 10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.i-vi | Section: Contents

 

INDIGENOUS MANAGEMENT: THEORIES AND PRACTICES

ISSN 0976-1861

May 2015

Vol. VI, No.1

 

Editorial

Indigenous Management: Theories and Practices

George Thadathil and Anirban Ghosh

v

Perception of Eco-tourism Among Urban Residents in India: An Explorative Study

Shuvendu Dey and Anal Jyoti Basu

1

Sustainable Tourism in India: Challenges and Prospects

Pamela Deb and Rameswar Mukherjee

9

Tourism Industry: Focussing Sustainability Contemplating Adversity

Rashmita Barua

19

Cultural Diversity: A Study of its Problems and Effects in the Work Place

Amit Kumar Dutta

29

Problems and Effects of Cultural Diversity at the Workplaces

Moumita Dey and Archita Banerjee

33

Cultural Differences and Marketing Strategy Formulation: The Case of India

Surajit Das and Snigdha Basu

39

Cultural Differences and Management: A Contemporary Study

Debansu Chatterjee and Arindam De

48

Changing Culture and Advertisement

Kasturi Ghosh

59

Importance of Ethics for Professional Accountants: Ethical Dilemmas and Pressures

Shomik Saha and Sandeep Singh

65

Indigenous Innovative Products by Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises: 

A Study of Cases

Abhrangshu Sarkar and Patrick Johnson

74

Indigenous Business Practices: Micro and Small Enterprises in Siliguri

Pawan Prasad and Sandeep Singh

82

Indigenous Business Model: Practices by Small and Medium Enterprises

Bikash Gogoi

91

Book Reviews

 

Rustam S. Davar: Personnel Management & Industrial Relations

By Dipendra Bhadra

98

Satish B. Mathur: Understanding Balance Sheet

By Uma Chettri

102

Mary Buffett & David Clark: Warren Buffett and the Interpretation of Financial 

Statements: The search for the Company with a Durable Competitive Advantage

By Pratik Thapa

105

 

 

 

 

 

Acknowledgement

The College Publication thanks the UGC Regional Office, Kolkata for granting permission to publish the papers in the Journal.

Special thanks to the external reviewers Prof. Balram Singh, Prof. M. K. Ray, Col. Alok Bhandari, Mrs. Nandini Chowdhury, Mr. Shuvendu Dey and Mr. Biju Mathew, Publication Coordinator.

Editorial

Editorial

George Thadathil and Anirban Ghosh

George Thadathil is the Principal of Salesian College Sonada and Siliguri. He is the author of Vision from the Margin (2007) and has edited and co-edited number of books besides contributing to a number of journals and edited volumes on Philosophy, Literature and Social Science. He is the founder Director of Salesian Publications, Salesian Research Institute and Salesian Translation Centre.

Editorial

Salesian Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences, Vol. VI, No. 1 (May 2015)
ISSN: 0976-1861 | DOI: 10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.v-viii | Page No: v-viii | Section: Editorial
Editorial: Indigenous Management: Theories & Practices| v

Editorial
Indigenous Management: Theories & Practices
George Thadathil is the Principal of Salesian College Sonada and Siliguri. He is the author of Vision from the Margin (2007) and has edited and co-edited number of books besides contributing to a number of journals and edited volumes on Philosophy, Literature and Social Science. He is the founder Director of Salesian Publications, Salesian Research Institute and Salesian Translation Centre.

We could develop an argument that the propensity for innovative management begins from a context specific thinking. One of the premises for such an argument would be that we do not know our context fully until we place it against or compare with another: the rural with the urban, the town with the city; the city with the metropolis, India with Europe or America, Brazil or Chile, not to speak of Russia and China, which in fact we do a lot as their goods flood our markets. The Indian Mars Mission and oil explorations in Middle East are examples of home grown entrepreneurship that has propelled itself on new found opportunities for surging ahead. Of course two questions will naturally arise: firstly, from the leftist heritage of critical thinking we have inherited - as to whether this is the model of progress that we need to encourage or really dream about? Secondly, can we expect everyone to have this context-compared experience or knowledge as a starter in order to become an effective innovative manager? We have individuals up in the hills beyond we see who have not made it to the city called Siliguri and do not feel they miss anything given the view of the glorious mountains, which we occasionally glimpse from here; similarly we do need to nurture an alternative mode of development than the routine imitations of the best and bold - as they are being marketed; and precisely that is what we intended with this exercise of the seminar itself of exposing younger minds to the possibilities of innovations given the kind of constraints of economics we grapple with - with rumours of the economy not fully picking up as expected or projected even a year ago.

Thinking about and studying other contexts does not necessarily have to be the result of a visit or actual physical experience, which once had is indeed an eye opener to many an insight. One could think of many an example: one, for instance, is an young travel agent who books ticket for international travel, finding out so much about the destinations of his client just from the net and being so definitive about his knowledge thanks to Google maps and rome2rio websites; the other is another young chap who came to promote his book on campus - he has never been to the country where his story is based and succeeded to capture the culture of the country and the people from the few contacts and face book friends he has over there. The number of innovators is always small, and we are attempting how that small group of creative individuals addressing context specific problems can be increased so that the exponential growth that the country needs - as one young politician of our country has written about in Seminar recently - can be achieved.

An Idea of innovation that churned in mind on having had this context comparing opportunity while recently being in Brazil and travelling from Sao Paolo to Lorena, a city two and half hours by drive at the speed of 90 miles an hour (except for the bottle necks that getting out of the city and passing through smaller ones in between occasionally caused, something that all cities are being prone to), was ignited from seeing traces of Railway tracks and once even sighting a train. On inquiring about train timings for travel I was told that only the goods trains run the tracks. Given the diversity of peoples and the disparity in income levels among peoples there would be many who would like to have a cheaper mode of travel, and would travel to city and back given the opportunity, for not all have cars and the buses are the only popular mode of travel for the masses. Could the Indian expertise and experience of train services that knits a country together be of any gain to a country like Brazil? Could someone not negotiate and create a business out of this opportunity given the global networking despite the distance?

What has so far been referred to are the more pragmatic and application oriented aspects of the argument on ‘contextual management arising out of contextual thinking’. If we are to proceed into the theoretical dimensions, we need to begin by asking the question as to what could make the Indian brand of management practices and styles stand out, get them promoted and projected? In addressing the deeper ideological aspect of this argument we need to look at how our society as we find it today has been shaped. As in all societies there is a pre-modern strata of influences still shaping us and there is the modern layer with its assumptions attempting to take over, probably for the better, as it has succeeded in city states like Hong Kong and Singapore, besides many an Asian country. Now the attempt is to see how we can re-channel the forces of modernity in order to innovate new indigenous management styles that will happily integrate or amalgamate the pre-modern and modern. Both aspirations seem to be legitimate: One, having clean and neat roads and lanes; and the other, having traditional ways of family celebrations - be it birth, death, marriage or anniversaries. How do we bridge these desires and aspirations? How do we take note of the upcoming generation and the way they respond to the pre-modern? How do we address the stress that the older generation encounters in the onslaught of the modern?

In order to probe further into this issue an attempt could be made to look at the Beliefs out of which the Behaviours and Businesses have emerged. Can we replace the belief system so that the accepted and universally validated behaviours and businesses can flow even out of a different belief system? In other words, can the western business practices and behaviours that have an underlying belief system rooted in the Greek, Roman and Christian worldviews be appropriated and adapted as to be equally successful in the Indian context? Devdutt Patnaik, makes the case that as of now our prevailing management practices are probably subservient to alien beliefs and that the pre-modern belief systems are worth a relook in order to accomplish greater context specific innovations so as to generate local problem-solving oriented entrepreneurship.

If so, the questions arise as to how we can steamroll and redeploy the educational processes or means to creative thinking based on context specific problem solving. How do we redesign the curriculum towards this goal? We focus on education, because we know too well that Management is an expression of the mind and we could, as Devdutt argues,1 draw on the mythology of the East which provides an alternative map for the mind. In this new perspective we are invited to realise that ‘fear stops people from expanding their mind, including other people’s beliefs. We need to expand our mind rather than control people around us’. Therefore can we while searching for innovative management and economics, attempt this innovation at its very root - by remapping our minds and teaching the younger generations to look for resources
in contexts other than what the text books - most of them as of now - prescribe? The articles contained in this twin-issue of the Platinum Jubilee Volume of Salesian Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences are an attempt to move in this direction.

The first article by Shuvendu Dey and Anal Jyoti Basu discusses understanding of eco-tourism among urban Indians. We observe the obstacles due to lack of knowledge affecting sustainability of eco-tourism. The study shows the need to educate the urban masses about eco-tourism for protection and conservation of the environment. Sustainable tourism has been again discussed in our second article by Pamela Deb and Rameswar Mukherjee. Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries with a huge potential for income generation. However, tourism has also played a major role in environmental degradation. Therefore, again we conclude that sustainable tourism is the key to the growth of tourism industry in India and is a key driver of socio-economic progress. Our third article by Rashmita Barua also deals with both the positive and negative impact of tourism despite its contribution to the economy. She shows how Sikkim, an Indian state, has succeeded in carrying out sustainable practices in the development of tourism and how such practices could be adopted for development of sustainable tourism for the future of our country. Therefore, we can see how sustainable eco-tourism can be the future of tourism in India with the added potential of socio-economic growth.

We now come to the articles which focus on culture and its influence on management as also the various practices adopted in the globalised business world. The fourth article by Amit Kumar Dutta deals with understanding cultural background and management practices. Every individual comes from a different cultural background and as managers and working personnel they influence management practices and functions. Society plays a vital role in developing management practices. The author has tried to elaborate how Marwari culture has influenced business and management practices (especially in their business concerns) in Siliguri and North Bengal. In this very line we have our fifth article by Moumita Dey Sarkar and Archita Banerjee dealing with cultural diversity and its effect in the workplace. Every nation has its own work culture which is further influenced by individuals coming from different cultures. There are difficulties when one works in a diversified working environment due to working habits, policies and national culture. Some remedies or suggestions have been derived for coping with such cultural differences. Surajit Das and Snigdha Basu continue the discussion in the next article on cultural differenceand marketing strategy in the Indian context. Cultural difference with respect to marketing strategies of MNCs as well as domestic firms has been discussed in the article. The failure and success of these organisations with respect to various marketing strategies has been elaborately discussed. Understanding a culture before launching a product and its success thereafter with various hurdles and remedies have been the key focus of this article. The seventh article by Debansu Chatterjee and Arindam De speaks of cultural difference with respect to management. The effects of globalisation in management with cross cultural differences and alleviation of such differences is the main focus of this article. The challenges faced by international businesses due to global expansion of companies have been dealt with in this article with reference to culture and its influence on management. Advertisement has a strong effect on our culture and this is the focus of our next article by Kasturi Ghosh. The idea of marketing is communicated to the society through advertisement. Its primary aim is to create wants though with a touch of social responsibility. Empowerment of the marginalised and the weak by means of communication through advertisement also forms a part of social responsibility.

The article by Shomik Saha and Sandeep Singh discusses ethics in accounting and the professional world. It highlights the criticism of the corporate world with respect to frauds and unethical practices. Importance of ethics in the professional world parallel to the challenges of maintaining work place confidentiality and integrity is the focus of this article. Abhrangshu Sarkar and Patrick Johnson’s article on indigenous innovation by Micro Small and Medium Enterprises in the modern competitive world for employment creation with eco friendliness along with cost effectiveness keeping sustainability in mind has been aptly dealt with in the article. Our eleventh article by Pawan Prasad and Sandeep Singh discusses the management pattern of MSMEs in Siliguri area. Despite their contribution to the society they face innumerable difficulties. There is a lack of proper training and willingness to bring them fully into the expanding business arena. The authors have stated the potential these small enterprises hold for growth and as to how they can contribute even more to the economic development of the local society.

The last article by Bikash Gogoi traces a very different field from the rest of the above discussed. He speaks of marketing by higher educational institutions to attract talented students. Don Bosco Institute of Management and its place in the modern educational system, in the opinion of the author, are interesting in its details for educational administrators and scholars alike. He speaks of value learning for creation of better managers which seems relevant enough when compared with the issues raised in the earlier article on ethics and management.

All of these are a continuation of the search into the indigenous and contextual management systems, its theories and practices operative in India, an outcome of the UGC sponsored national seminar on the same theme that drew much interest from across the country. This issue of the Platinum Jubilee special Volume brings together attempts by academically oriented teaching faculty from different institutions who have taken a critical look at the prospects for indigenous management. As an institution of higher education located in the eastern Himalayas, this has been our pleasant task of putting together these creative pieces of contextual thinking.

Articles

Perception of Eco-tourism Among Urban Residents in India: An Explorative Study

Shuvendu Dey and Anal Jyoti Basu

DOI : https://doi.org/10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.1-8

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Section: Article

Articles

Salesian Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences, Vol. VI, No. 1 (May 2015)
ISSN: 0976-1861 | DOI: 10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.1-8 | Page No: 01-08 | Section: Article

Perception of Eco-Tourism among Urban Residents in India: An Exploratory Study| 1

Perception of Eco-Tourism among Urban Residents in India:
An Exploratory Study

Shuvendu Dey currently works at Siliguri Institute of Technology, Siliguri, in the Department of Business Administration as head of the department. He has done his MBA (Marketing and Finance) from Faculty of Management Studies, MLS University, Udaipur. He is presently pursuing his PhD from University of North Bengal.
Analjyoti Basu currently works as Project Guide at GETIT Infoservices Pvt. Ltd. He is a research associate at Metric Consultancies Pvt. Ltd. (Pune) and Institute of Management and Entrepreneurship Development (IMED). He has done his MBA (Finance) from ICFAI University and MBA (IT) from New Delhi Institute of Management.

Abstract

Ecotourism is considered as a form of tourism that is expected to boost conservation and socio-economic well-being of developing economies. For the sustainable development of tourism in destination areas, it is important to have responsible visitors with high pro-environmental orientation and a critical minimum knowledge of ecotourism. Most of the ecotourism destinations in India are in ecologically sensitive locations with bountiful environmental resources. Thus, understanding tourists’ environmental orientation is critical for destination management. This study scrutinizes general perceptions towards ecotourism travel, the level of interest in it as a form of pleasure travel, and the obstacles involved in undertaking this type of tourism activity among the urban residents in India. Ecotourism help educate the public to protect and conserve the environment through travel, and create and maintain a sustainable environment for both residents and tourists. Yet, a lack of public awareness and positive attitude towards ecotourism and the environment is likely to lead to misrepresentation and misuse of the concept, and further depletion of the environment especially with mass tourism. The study finds that, with a sample of respondents who reside in urban areas, there is a low level of awareness and knowledge of ecotourism. More than half of the respondents are not aware of it and in case they are, they do not have sufficient knowledge about it. In spite of the fact that most are aware of its environmental aspects, little or no appreciation is given to the other aspects of ecotourism. In addition, most respondents also expressed indifference towards ecotourism and there is little chance that they would take such a trip in the near future. This paper concludes with a discussion of the implications for future research and managerial practice.

Keywords: Ecotourism, Awareness, Perception, Urban, Environment

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Sustainable Tourism in India: Challenges and Prospects

Pamela Deb and Rameswar Mukherjee

DOI : https://doi.org/10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.9-18

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Articles

Salesian Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences, Vol. VI, No. 1 (May 2015)
ISSN: 0976-1861 | DOI: 10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.9-18 | Page No: 09-18| Section: Article

Sustainable Tourism in India: Challenges & Prospects| 9

Sustainable Tourism in India: Challenges & Prospects

Pamela Deb is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Geography, Salesian College, Siliguri Campus. She has got her M.A. degree from Banaras Hindu University and is pursuing her Ph.D from Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan. Her areas of interest are tribal studies, Climate change and its impact and sustainable development.

Rameswar Mukherjee is working as a Junior Research Fellow at Department of Geography, Banaras Hindu University. He has completed his Masters from the same university. His areas of interest are quaternary geomorphology, application of Remote Sensing and GIS in geography, sustainable development and climate studies.

Abstract

Tourism has become one of the largest and fastest growing industries since last few decades. For developing countries it is one of the biggest income generators as a service industry. It is the key driver of socio-economic progress through the creation of jobs and enterprises, infrastructure development and Foreign Exchange earnings. Tourism is one economic sector in India that has the potential to grow at a high rate and ensure consequential economic development. According to the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report India1 has key strengths for sustainable tourism; linked mainly to cultural endowments. India ranks 12th in the Asian region and 68th globally. The country is well assessed for its natural resources (ranked 8th), and cultural resources (24th), with many World Heritage sites, both natural and cultural, rich fauna, many fairs and exhibitions. Tourism has also contributed to environmental degradation, and habitat fragmentation. Since the emergence of the World Conservation Strategy and Our Common Future, a number of arguments and debates concerning sustainable tourism development (STD) have been presented and also attempted to convert their theoretical framework of sustainable development into practice. The paper is an overview of the present scenario of sustainable tourism, its typology; plan- programme, potentiality and threat with special reference to India.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Sustainable Tourism, WTO, GATS, Eco-Tourism

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Tourism Industry: Focussing Sustainability Contemplating Adversity

Rashmita Barua

DOI : https://doi.org/10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.19-28

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Section: Article

Articles

Salesian Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences, Vol. VI, No. 1 (May 2015)
ISSN: 0976-1861 | DOI: 10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.19-28 | Page No: 19-28 | Section: Article

Tourism Industry: Focusing Sustainability Contemplating Adversity| 19

Tourism Industry: Focusing Sustainability Contemplating Adversity

Rashmita Barua is presently working as an Assistant Professor at the Department of Humanities and Social Sciences in Assam Don Bosco University. She has an industry experience of over one and a half years and academic experience of over three and a half years. Presently she is pursuing her PhD in International Trade: Masters of Business Economics (MBE).

Abstract

Tourism industry helps generate employment, reduce poverty and contribute to the overall economic growth of many developing and developed nations. Tourism Industry has been considered to be the disseminator of economic progress for many developed and developing economies. Growth in tourism automatically creates a backward and forward linkage with other sectors, developing into an important tool of income generation for these sectors. It has turned out to be the key driver of socio-economic progress for a country through generation of export revenues, creation of jobs and entrepreneurial units, and infrastructure development. However, tourism does have both positive and negative impacts on the people and the environment. As the tourism sector is poised for massive growth if it is not addressed well, it may lead to serious financial leakages, socio-cultural tensions and environmental damages to the local communities. Therefore, it has become highly essential that tourism be developed and practiced more sustainably by developing strategic policies and tools to maximize the industry’s positive effects while minimizing the negative impacts of the industry on the society. Sustainable tourism practices must become an important objective in the development process of an economy. The paper aims at discussing the importance of sustainable tourism practices and various guiding principles that could help shape sustainable tourism in developed as well as developing countries. The paper discusses a case on Sikkim to address the impacts of tourism on the local community in general. The case also brings forth the sustainable development practices that are being adopted by Sikkim Tourism.

Keywords: Tourism, Socio Cultural, Economy, Environment

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Cultural Diversity: A Study of its Problems and Effects in the Work Place

Amit Kumar Dutta

DOI : https://doi.org/10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.33-38

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Articles

Salesian Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences, Vol. VI, No. 1 (May 2015) ISSN: 0976-1861 | DOI: 10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.33-38 | Page No: 33-38| Section: Article

Cultural Diversity: A Study of its Problems and Effects in the Workplace| 33

Cultural Diversity: A Study of its Problems and Effects in the Work Place

Moumita Dey is an Assistant Professor at Institute of Management Study, affiliated to West Bengal University of Technology. She has a first class M.Phil degree in Management with specialization in Human Resource Management. She has a prior background in Psychology, having completed and awarded a first class Master degree from University of Calcutta with specialization in Clinical Psychology. Presently she is engaged in doctoral work in the area of “social networks, personality types and usage management: a perception study of urban metropolitan adults. Archita Banerjee is presently working at Institute of Management Study, Kolkata. Her field of specialization is Human resource Management and Marketing but area of delivery is on Human Resource Management. To keep abreast with today’s competitive as well as virtual market she has completed BBA in E-commerce from Visva Bharati University in the year 2005 and MBA in 2007. Presently she is engaged in doctoral work and her area of research understands employees’s motive, intention and strategies behind retaining or separating from a company.

Abstract

The article is a review report on the cultural diversity and its effect in the workplace. With the growth of MNCs, off shoring and outsourcing, diversity has reached a new dimension. It has brought a revolution in the working habits, change in the working policies and more focus on interpersonal relationships also has proved a boon in compensation management. Although it has benefited organizations cultural diversity has also brought certain constraints. This study attempts to highlight the probable difficulties, the distinguished features of some of the nations and its impact in the work area. It has also tried to find some imperative remedies against these odds. Keywords: MNCs, Offshoring, Outsourcing, Cross Culture, Cultural Differences

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Problems and Effects of Cultural Diversity at the Workplaces

Moumita Dey and Archita Banerjee

DOI : https://doi.org/#

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Section: Article

Articles

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Cultural Differences and Marketing Strategy Formulation: The Case of India

Surajit Das and Snigdha Basu

DOI : https://doi.org/10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.39-47

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Section: Article

Articles

Salesian Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences, Vol. VI, No. 1 (May 2015)
ISSN: 0976-1861 | DOI: 10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.39-47 | Page No: 39-47 | Section: Article

Cultural Differences and Marketing Strategy: Case Study on Indian Cultural Context| 39

Cultural Differences and Marketing Strategy: Case Study on Indian Cultural Context

Surajit Das is presently working as Assistant Professor at Institute of Management Study. He has done his M.Com from University of Calcutta and MBA (Insurance and Risk Management) from University of Burdwan. He is pursuing his research from West Bengal University of Technology in the field of Accountancy.

Snigdha Basu is presently working as Assistant Professor at Institute of Management Study. She has done her MBA (Finance) from West Bengal University of Technology. She has also done her M.Phil in Management from EIILM University. Presently she is pursuing PhD in the field of Finance under West Bengal University of Technology.

Abstract

Managerial decision-making is largely affected by the cultural differentiation. Those companies which are growing and looking for newer markets and targeting new customers, must concentrate, to a great extent on appropriate marketing strategy formulation, particularly for a multicultural country like India. Differences with respect to languages, religion, culture, food habit, life style etc. must be given due consideration by firms because, it allows them to examine the market and in doing so, collect the information to determine what marketing approaches will be best at reaching out to the target customers. Offering new products and services to a diversified nation is always very tricky; and has to consider the values, beliefs and behavior the people are attached with. The market orientation of a particular product is a combination of external forces and internal forces. Developing the art of understanding tolerance and acceptances of cultural differences is essential if international or domestic marketing objectives are to be accomplished. Marketing across culture worldwide or region wise is a thriving business as the world moves closer to the global economy. In this context this paper would refer to two cases: the marketing strategy formulation of Kelloggs’ and MC Donalds’ during the entry phase in India as well as two domestic organizations namely; Marico Industries and Speciality Restaurant Pvt Ltd. Their failure and success will be analyzed on the basis of cultural differentiation. On the basis of VBN Model, this paper will try to suggest a new approach called ‘VBNAA’ to enlighten the cultural differentiation aspects in today’s management practices. Therefore this paper tries to find out how the MNC’s and domestic firms formulate marketing strategies, based on cultural differentiation.

Keywords: Cultural Differentiation, MNCs, Values, Beliefs, Marketing Strategy

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Cultural Differences and Management: A Contemporary Study

Debansu Chatterjee and Arindam De

DOI : https://doi.org/10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.48-55

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Section: Article

Articles

Salesian Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences, Vol. VI, No. 1 (May 2015)
ISSN: 0976-1861 | DOI: 10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.48-55 | Page No: 48-55| Section: Article

48|Debanshu Chatterjee & Arindam De

Cultural Differences and Management: A Contemporary Study

Debanshu Chatterjee is presently running his own business consulting firm. He has done his MMA (Masters in Management Administration) from Birla School of Management. He is pursuing his Ph.D in Event Management Industry and its Influence in current Economy from IMS, Kolkata.

Arindam De is presently associated as a senior marketing consultant with Odisha Television Network. He has done his MBA (Marketing) from Bhavan’s Institute of Management Science, Kolkata. Currently he is pursuing his PhD on FDI in Retail Sector and its probable influence on Indian Consumers from IMS, Kolkata.

Abstract

It is common to hear of “globalization” as an engine for bringing diverse cultures in remote parts of the world together and the suggestion has often been that globalization will ultimately minimize cross-cultural differences. While advances in technology have transformed global business activities, it remains an unsettled question as to whether or not increasing globalization of business activities will lead to a reduction in meaningful cultural differences. This article focuses on comments that researchers have made on the effect of globalization on cultural differences. Technology allows people to exchange ideas and information even when they are located thousands of miles apart and it has been an important factor in creating a truly global economy.Cultural differences often pose a major difficulty in international negotiations and management. These cultural differences reflect differences in the assumptions people make about how business is organized and what social strategies should be followed for career success. Managers working in different cultures can identify these strategies by asking the people the types of skills in which they take the most pride and what they regard as the most prevalent causes for career failures. A foreign manager should also look at the ways in which subordinates interact. With whom do people tend to associate in the organization? How do they tend to present themselves? Managers can promote changes in organizational culture by clearly and consistently setting out a framework in which different career strategies would become appropriate. Training should be provided in the new sets of interpersonal and organizational skills. The prospects for successfully changing behaviors in the foreign organization will be enhanced if people are not asked to adopt social strategies under the new rules that have generally been considered as sources of risk and ruin under the traditional patterns.

Keywords: Technology, Cultural Variations, Globalization, Managers

License : Salesian Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 InternationalJournal Indigenous Management: Theories & PracticesJournal Indigenous Management: Theories & PracticesJournal Indigenous Management: Theories & Practices

Changing Culture and Advertisement

Kasturi Ghosh

DOI : https://doi.org/10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.56-64

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Section: Article

Articles

Salesian Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences, Vol. VI, No. 1 (May 2015)
ISSN: 0976-1861 | DOI: 10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.56-64 | Page No: 56-64| Section: Article

56|Kasturi Ghosh

Changing Culture and Advertisements

Kasturi Ghosh is an Assistant Professor in the Department of English at Salesian College Siliguri Campus. She holds an M. Phil and an MA degree in the subject from Jadavpur University, Kolkata. She is the chief editor of the college magazine Sparkle (of Salesian College Siliguri Campus). She regularly contributes articles to local magazine. Her areas of interest include literature, religion and art discourses and cultural studies.

Abstract

Advertisement is a potent medium of communication of ideas. An individual is bombarded with hundreds of advertisements in the form of television commercials, hoardings, newspaper promotions, flyers and pamphlets to name a few, suggesting new ideas, products and lifestyles at random. They are not only attractive owing to their presentation, but also informative, often creating needs that were not felt before. Therefore, just like any other social media they too have some social responsibilities. To sell alien ideas and products, alien contents and methods are used and are subsequently internalised by the audience at the cost of its own identity and indigenous practices. Conversely, stereotypes are promoted to maintain the popularity of certain products, with the reiteration of accepted age old ideas and gender roles. The imported image of women as sex objects and symbols, and the Indian variant of women as nurturing, serving, subservient workforce are perpetuated at the cost of releasing women from these gender stereotypes. Within the scope of this paper I want to discuss the social responsibility of advertisements, focussing on and comparing audio-visual commercials of TATA Tea and Amul, analysing their content and determining their agency in promoting issues of indigenous concern and empowering the marginalised and the weak, especially rural women; and how they too can be used as tools to spread awareness and making a difference in the lives of millions with locally and nationally relevant and contextual messages.

Keywords: Advertisement, Corporate Social Responsibility, Gender Roles, Culture, Empowering Women, Youth and Social Awareness

License : Salesian Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 InternationalJournal Indigenous Management: Theories & PracticesJournal Indigenous Management: Theories & PracticesJournal Indigenous Management: Theories & Practices

Importance of Ethics for Professional Accountants: Ethical Dilemmas and Pressures

Shomik Saha and Sandeep Singh

DOI : https://doi.org/10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.65-73

Cite :   

Section: Article

Articles

Salesian Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences, Vol. VI, No. 2 (May 2015)
ISSN: 0976-1861 | DOI: 10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.65-73 | Page No: 65-73 | Section: Article

Importance of Ethics for Professional Accountants: Ethical Dilemmas and Pressures| 65

Importance of Ethics for Professional Accountants: Ethical Dilemmas and Pressures

Shomik Saha is presently Head, Department of Management, Salesian College, Siliguri Campus. He has completed his M.B.A. from Sikkim Manipal University of Health, Medical and Technological Sciences and M.Sc from Karnataka State Open University. He has three years of corporate experience, and seven years of academics and administrative experience. Sandeep Singh is presently working as Assistant Professor and Coordinator in Department of Management, Salesian College, Siliguri Campus. He has completed his M.B.A. from Biju Pattanaik University of Technology, Odisha, and M.Com from Madurai Kamraj University. He has nine years experience in Academics and Administration.

Abstract

Accounting partially reflects moral compass of the world in which it is practiced. It has become a moral discourse, because of the prejudice that has occurred with regards to ethics within the accounting profession. Accounting ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as they apply to accountancy. It is an example of professional ethics. Accounting ethics were first introduced by Luca Pacioli, and later extended by government groups, professional organizations, and independent companies. Due to range of accounting services and recent corporate downfalls, attention has been drawn to ethical standards accepted within the accounting profession. These downfalls have resulted in a widespread disregard for the reputation of the accounting profession. To address the criticism and prevent fraudulent accounting, various accounting organizations and governments have developed regulations and remedies for improved ethics among the accounting profession. Accounting ethics has been deemed difficult to regulate as accountants and auditors must consider the interest of the public, which relies on the information gathered in audits, while ensuring that they remained employed by the company they are auditing. They must consider how to best apply accounting standards even when faced with issues that could cause a company to face a significant loss or downfalls or when they are under the threat of termination. Such criticisms and issues arising out of conflict of interest have led to various increased standards of professionalism while stressing ethics in the work environment.

Keywords: Moral Compass, Corporate Collapse, Fraudulent Accounting, Accounting Standards, Corporate Scams

License : Salesian Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 InternationalJournal Indigenous Management: Theories & PracticesJournal Indigenous Management: Theories & PracticesJournal Indigenous Management: Theories & Practices

Indigenous Innovative Products by Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises: A Study of Cases

Abhrangshu Sarkar and Patrick Johnson

DOI : https://doi.org/10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.74-81

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Section: Article

Articles

Salesian Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences, Vol. VI, No. 1 (May 2015)
ISSN: 0976-1861 | DOI: 10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.74-81 | Page No: 74-81 | Section: Article

74|Abhrangshu Kr. Sarkar & Patrick Johnson

Indigenous Innovative Products by Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises

Abhrangshu Kr. Sarkar is an Assistant Professor in Department of Commerce, Salesian College, Siliguri. He is a gold medallist in M. Com from University of North Bengal. He has qualified U.G.C. NET for Lecturership in Commerce.

Patrick Johnson is a Lecturer in the Department of Business Administration and the Campus Coordinator for the morning session, in Salesian College, Siliguri Campus. He has done his BBM (Marketing) from Christ College, Bangalore University and Masters of Marketing Management from Pondicherry University. His area of interests include advertising, developing corporate identity and photography.

Abstract

Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) in contemporary times have emerged as an interesting subject for research among the academicians and researchers. The products of the sector are facing stiff competition in this liberalised regime due to the influx of latest technology in large scale enterprises which resulted in the latter producing low cost as well as high quality products. In order to sustain, the only way left out is to go for innovation. Unlike large scale enterprises, the small scale sector doesn’t abide by the principles of linear model of innovation but rather it follows a trial and error method in its approach to innovation. This paper attempts to bring out a portion of the vast canvas of indigenous innovative products these industries offer and to study their distinctive functionalities in terms of utility creation, employment opportunities, substitutability, low cost, and eco friendliness. A Study of cases regarding product innovation has been conducted to focus on the distinguishing features and functionalities of the indigenous innovative products specially emphasising on the parameters mentioned above.

Keywords: Innovation, Competition, Product Substitution, Liberalization

License : Salesian Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 InternationalJournal Indigenous Management: Theories & PracticesJournal Indigenous Management: Theories & PracticesJournal Indigenous Management: Theories & Practices

Indigenous Business Practices: Micro and Small Enterprises in Siliguri

Pawan Prasad and Sandeep Singh

DOI : https://doi.org/10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.82-90

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Section: Article

Articles

Salesian Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences, Vol. VI, No. 1 (May 2015)
ISSN: 0976-1861 | DOI: 10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.82-90 | Page No: 82-90 | Section: Article

82|Pawan Prasad & Sandeep Singh

Indigenous Business Practices: Micro and Small Enterprises in Siliguri

Pawan Prasad is a Assistant Professor and Coordinator in the Department of Commerce, Salesian College Siliguri. He has nine years of teaching experience and professional experience of three years working with C.A. He is UGC NET qualified in Commerce. He has attended and presented papers in National Seminars and Workshops. He is presently pursuing his Doctorate in Cash Management from University of North Bengal.

Sandeep Singh is presently working as Assistant Professor and Coordinator in Department of Management, Salesian College, Siliguri Campus. He has completed his M.B.A. from Biju Pattanaik University of Technology, Odisha, and M.Com from Madurai Kamraj University. He has nine years experience in Academics and Administration.

Abstract

The Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) are aptly regarded as the backbone of the Indian economy. The small scale sector occupies a position of prominence in the Indian economy, contributing to more than fifty percent of the industrial production in terms of value accumulation. The sector accounts for 33.33% of the export revenue and employs the highest manpower next to agriculture. MSMEs are recognized as important constituent of the national economy.In North Bengal, Siliguri town traditionally possessed skilled labour efficient in making various handicraft items, like carpet, woolen garments, jackets, handloom products, cane and bamboo craft, ornaments, embroidery work, jute work, and pottery. These industries mainly operate in micro and small scale, and do good business during the tourist season. Their market is not confined to Siliguri alone but different states of India. However, these MSMEs suffer from a lack of adequate training and face problems in managing working capital. With proper training and adequate financial assistance from the local or state authority, they can be improved to compete with any other organized sector in the country. This paper is an attempt to explore the components of governance in micro and small scale industry and their management pattern in the area of Siliguri.

Keywords: Micro, Enterprise, Small industry, Governance, Management

License : Salesian Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 InternationalJournal Indigenous Management: Theories & PracticesJournal Indigenous Management: Theories & PracticesJournal Indigenous Management: Theories & Practices

Indigenous Business Model: Practices by Small and Medium Enterprises

Bikash Gogoi

DOI : https://doi.org/10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.91-97

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Section: Article

Articles

Salesian Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences, Vol. VI, No. 1 (May 2015)
ISSN: 0976-1861 | DOI: 10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.91-97 | Page No: 91-97 | Section: Article

Indigenous Business Model Practices by Small and Medium Enterprises: A Case in Marketing of DBIM| 91

Indigenous Business Model Practices by Small and Medium Enterprises: A Case in Marketing of DBIM

Bikash Gogoi is an Assistant Professor at DBIM, Guwahati. He did his MBA from College of Agribusiness Management, G B Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pant Nagar, Uttaranchal. After his post-graduation, he was associated with Hindustan Pulverizing Mills, New Delhi, for two years, after which he joined the Centre for Management Studies, Dibrugarh University, as Lecturer in the year 2006. He brings along 5 years of both industry and academic experience to DBIM. Currently, he is pursuing his PhD from Centre for Management Studies, Dibrugarh University, on “Marketing of Higher Education in India: A Study of the Selected Management Institutes”.

Abstract

Higher education institutes and the corporate world share many characteristics. Prospective students, like prospective customers, have a vast array of choices: private or public institute, large or small, domestic or international, management studies or technical / engineering studies -- the list goes on. Like businesses competing for talented workers, colleges and universities compete vigorously for talented students and calculate ways to improve the conversion rate from accepted to enrolled students. Marketing of higher education thus plays a very prominent role, in creating and sustaining the brand image of the institution, in the customers and consumers mind. Higher education is a broad marketplace, and no college or university can rest on its laurels.

Keywords: Higher Education, Marketing, Value Learning, Participating Institutes

License : Salesian Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 InternationalJournal Indigenous Management: Theories & PracticesJournal Indigenous Management: Theories & PracticesJournal Indigenous Management: Theories & Practices

Book Reviews

Rustam S. Davar: Personnel Management & Industrial Relations

By Dipendra Bhadra

DOI : https://doi.org/10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.98-101

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Section: Book Review

Book Reviews

Salesian Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences, Vol. VI, No. 1 (May 2015)
ISSN: 0976-1861 | DOI: 10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.98-101 | Page No: 98-101| Section: Book Reviews

98|Dipendra Bhadra

BOOK REVIEW

Personnel Management and Industrial Relations by Rustam S Davar, Vikas
Publishing House Private Limited, New Delhi, pp.421,Rs. 135, ISBN 0-7069-
9905-3

Dipendra Bhadra has done his MBA from IMT Ghaziabad, Vidyasagar University and M.Sc in Mathematics from KSOU. He is presently working as a Management Consultant and Guest Faculty of Engineering for various Management Colleges.

Indian industry is waking up to the challenges thrown by the global market economy. To survive in this highly competitive scenario, managers are pressurized to improve quality, increase productivity, cut down waste and eliminate inefficiency. The collective efforts of employer and employee assume relevance in this context. And this is why Personnel Management can play a crucial role in industry or an organization.

Since Independence, India has attempted to take wide strides, particularly since, 1951, by embarking upon a planned economy with a view to generate all-round economic and industrial development. Industrial development in recent years has resulted in the advent of large enterprises with large labour force. Besides, the recent trends indicate that employee can no longer be viewed as a commodity. The socialistic pattern of society, the advent of intervention by the state and the idea of a welfare state must move the alert manager to recognize the importance of the human relations and his actions must result in social justice. The educated component of the work force is increasing. A worker today is more urban than rural in his outlook. The labour force is better organized through the increasing strength of trade unions and the trade union movement.

License : Salesian Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 InternationalJournal Indigenous Management: Theories & PracticesJournal Indigenous Management: Theories & PracticesJournal Indigenous Management: Theories & Practices

Satish B. Mathur: Understanding Balance Sheet

By Uma Chettri

DOI : https://doi.org/10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.102-104

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Section: Book Review

Book Reviews

Salesian Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences, Vol. VI, No. 1 (May 2015)
ISSN: 0976-1861 | DOI: 10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.102-104 | Page No: 102-104| Section: Book Reviews

102|Uma Chettri

Understanding Balance Sheet by Prof. Dr. Satish B. Mathur, Macmillan India Limited, 2005, 231 pages, Rs.165, ISBN 1403-92811-8, ISBN 9781403928115.

Uma Chettri is presently working in a public sector bank. She has done her M.Com from University of North Bengal. She has qualified U.G.C. NET for Lecturership in Commerce. She is interested in topics related to banking and finance.

Satish B Mathur was a former Professor in Indian Institute of Management (IIML), Lucknow (1996-2003). He mentors Mathur Management Consultants (MMC), Lucknow. He was a Senior Member of the Faculty at the Administrative Staff College of India (ASCI), Hyderabad (1988-95), and a Senior Executive with the State Bank of India (1961-88).

Professor M. Dubey, IFS is an MA (Economics), Gold medallist, Patna University and former Foreign Secretary, Government of India.

The author has tried to give the basic ideas and concepts of the various components of balance sheet and utilizing them for the interpretation of financial position of the company. He
has presented substantial examples and explained the concepts.

The first chapter gives the introduction on various financial statements like balance sheet, profit and loss account and sources and application of Fund statement. The author describes the Balance sheet as a ‘static picture’ of the financial position of a company on a specific date and warns the possibility of ‘window dressing’. Thus, such statement should be supported by related documents like schedules, notes, auditor’s report and director’s report.

The second chapter explains the ‘basic concepts and conventions’ used in framing the balance sheet and profit and loss account. Generally six concepts are followed in framing balance sheet and five concepts in framing the profit and loss account. Balance sheet can be presented vertically or horizontally.

The dissection of Balance sheet starts in the third chapter. Liability and asset are the two main component of balance sheet. Liability, which the author calls ‘sources of fund’, comprises of share capital, reserve and surplus, secured loans, unsecured loans and current liabilities in order of their permanency. Share capital can be divided into equity and preference shares. The equity shareholders are the owners of the company and share the profit or loss of the company. He then describes the concept of equity capital which consists of authorised capital, issued capital, subscribed and paid-up capital and other terms related to it.

License : Salesian Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 InternationalJournal Indigenous Management: Theories & PracticesJournal Indigenous Management: Theories & PracticesJournal Indigenous Management: Theories & Practices

Mary Buffett & David Clark: Warren Buffett and the Interpretation of Financial Statements: The search for the Company with a Durable Competitive Advantage

By Pratik Thapa

DOI : https://doi.org/10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.105-108

Cite :  

Section: Book Review

Book Reviews

Salesian Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences, Vol. VI, No. 1 (May 2015)
ISSN: 0976-1861 | DOI: 10.51818/SJHSS.06.2015.105-108 | Page No: 105-108 | Section: Book Reviews

Book Reviews: Warren Buffett and the Interpretation of Financial Statements...| 105

Warren Buffett and the Interpretation of Financial Statements: The Search for the Company with a Durable Competitive Advantage by Mary Buffett and David Clark, Simon and Schuster UK Limited, 2011, 12 pages, £ 8.99, ISBN 978-1-84983-319-6

 

Pratik Thapa is a Lecturer at the Department of Commerce, Salesian College, Siliguri Campus.
He has done his M.Com from Sikkim Manipal University. His areas of interests are ancient
accounting and problems related to modern accounting.

Mary Buffett, an international bestselling author and a renowned speaker on Investments Methodology founded by Warren Buffett is one of the famous personalities in the modern days of investment. She is the daughter in law of Warren Buffett.

David Clark is a Buffettologist and a managing partner of a private investment group in Omaha, Nebraska. He is a co-author of Mary Buffett and together they have written four bestselling books on investment methods by Warren Buffett.

The book is a literary milestone in the field of Value Investment. The book is a kind of notebook by Warren Buffett, edited by authors providing examples and explanatory notes in the required areas. The book aims to provide knowledge regarding theoretical and practical ways to interpret and make the right investment.

The first unit contains introductory and historical background on the evolution of ‘Value Investment’. The authors present a comparative analysis between the strategy of Warren Buffett and Benjamin Graham. They explain how Warren Buffett made further development (or alteration) of the knowledge discovered by his mentor Benjamin Graham. Warren Buffett has established certain facts in order to identify valuable companies with a durable competitive  advantage. They explain how basing on Graham’s methodology of ‘bond analysis  techniques’ and ‘50% rule’ Warren Buffett states that it’s not the price of shares that keep on fluctuating ( and their purchase and sell in lower and higher prices respectively) but the durability of a company which gives competitive advantage to investors in the long run. As per Warren Buffett the durability of a company depends on producing unique products or unique services that public need consistently. The “durable competitive advantage” of a company can be found after going through its financial statements and hidden information can also be analyzed by going through the statements.

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Salesian College, Sonada was accredited by NAAC on 16 September 2004 and was given the Grade C++ (Institutional Score between 65-70%). On 26 February 2010 Salesian College has been conferred the status of a College with Potential for Excellence (CPE) by UGC, New Delhi, and into its 2nd Cycle from 1st April 2014. In March 2012, the College was re-accredited by NAAC with ‘A’ Grade (CGPA of 3.16 out of 4) to be the first College to receive such grade under the University of North Bengal.

The College retained its A Grade under the New stringent Format of Accreditation in May 2019 and it is valid till 2024.

Salesian Publications, Salesian Research Institute, and Salesian Translation Centre offer opportunities for capacity building for aspiring teaching and research personnel of the region. Salesian College Extension Activities Centre has trained and placed over 600 youth of the region in collaboration with the Ministry of Rural Development and Don Bosco Tech, New Delhi. Salesian College invites young people and their parents to partner in nurturing an ideal society.

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