The results found in this study are presented below. Although these are presented separately by each institution, due to the explanations given in the previous section, the results are comparatively analyzed in the conclusions chapter. Given this clarification, the graphs of the results found are presented below.
Result found in the Salesian University of Bolivia
At the end of the application of the surveys and their corresponding tabulation, the following results can be seen on the USB:
Graphic Nº 1: Internet connectivity for USB students
According to these results, 55% of students access the internet through the purchase of data from their mobile phone. This data coincides with the concern of the students, who at the beginning of the pandemic expressed concern about the difficulty of purchasing data to attend classes, mainly due to the cost, given that Bolivia has one of the most expensive internet services in the region. In addition to the cost, there is the connection speed, another result of the survey indicates that 64.9% of the students perceive that their internet connection is "Very Slow" or "Slow" and only 35.1% consider their connection Enter “Very fast” or “Fast”. These initial problems, of connection and connection speed, generated the creativity and flexibility of the career directors and their teachers, who had to look for alternatives to support the students to overcome these barriers; for example, recording classes to share them, share video or audios through WhatsApp. On the other side of this scenario, we have 40% of students who declared fixed internet connection, which means that particularly for this group of student’s access to classes was not a difficulty. Finally, the survey results also indicate that some students agreed to inter net from their labor sources and a smaller group mentioned that connected to internet through a family member, friend or neighbor.
Another interesting result to analyze is in the use and familiarity with learning platforms. At the beginning of the migration from face-to-face classes to virtual classes, USB had to enter into an abrupt process of preparation and training for both students and teachers in the use of the TEAMS platform.
Graph Nº 2: Familiarity with learning platforms
At the time of the survey, 77% of the students say they are familiar with the TEAMS and Moodle learning platforms. This percentage would surely be very small if the survey had been applied before the start of virtual classes, after five months of virtual education and also the training processes offered by USB through their career directions. An interesting data is in the 19% of students who, in addition to being familiar with TEAMS, consider Zoom, WhatsApp, Google Meet, Telegram and GoToMeeting as learning platforms, when in reality those applications are for messaging or for simply conferences. Finally, there is 4% who declare not having familiarity with learning platforms, possibly they are students who are in the stage of preparing their final project for graduation.
Regarding study devices and internet connection, 78% of USB students connect to their classes through a mobile phone. This is a characteristic that generates another study difficulty, because the characteristics of mobile phones do not generally support the functionality of TEAMS, as well as the visibility of teachers' presentations and the difficulty of interaction in different windows.
Graph Nº 3: Connection and study devices
Also, only 6% of students use a desktop computer and 16% a laptop. These inequalities in the use of devices coincide with a report presented by the Institute for Higher Education of Latin America and the Caribbean (IESALC) in April of this year, which warned of the limitations of virtual education-based precisely on connection devices. Although it is recognized that cell phones are not particularly means designed for access to studies, for now, they have been an alternative that has allowed many students, as is the case of the USB students, to continue their studies of higher education. At the same time, the survey reveals another aspect that draws attention: 25% of the students do their homework by hand, another 25% do it through their cell phone and 43% use a laptop or desktop computer; that is to say, at least half of the students are at a disadvantage in terms of using a computer, something that as it becomes common, is also worsening the technological gaps among the less favored.
Regarding software management, 31.4% of the USB students are familiar with MS Word, Excel and Power Point, 31.9% use only Word and Power Point, 33.3 only use Word and the rest does not respond. From these results it can be seen that 96% are familiar with MS Word.
Regarding access to bibliographic resources in times of pandemic and virtual education, students declare the following, only 0.7% access bibliographic material through the USB Virtual Library, 5% only use the materials provided by teachers and more than half, 54.5%, access bibliographic material in internet searches. This result presents a challenge for the USB, because a student, when accessing information through general search engines, runs the risk of accessing materials of poor quality. Claudio Rama (2015) warns that informational competences; In other words, the competence of knowing where reliable information is obtained and how it is processed is a fundamental component in the training of students, and higher education institutions are responsible for helping to acquire this competence.
Regarding the ease/difficulty of use TEAMS platform 45% of students reported that there is either “Very hard " or "Very easy", or a neutral position between both ends. 38.8% declare that TEAMS is “Very difficult” and “Difficult” to use and 15.7% consider it to be “Very easy” and “Easy” to use. If we consider that the change from face-to-face classes to virtual classes was abrupt and without ample preparation time, these percentages could be considered acceptable, given that those who have a position of neutrality and those who consider it easy, the percentage exceeds two thirds.
If the number of hours of use of social networks is compared in contrast to the TEAMS platform, it is interesting to note that TEAMS, at least in this time of the pandemic, is more used than Facebook or YouTube; for example, almost 60% use TEAMS in three or more hours per day and 38% use it between one and two hours per day. For its part, Facebook has the following results: 64.5% of the students declare that they use Facebook between one and two hours per day and 17.9% between three, four or more hours. For YouTube, 48.5% of students used it for between one and two hours per day. Social networks like Instagram and TikTok have much lower rates of use.
Results found at Salesian College
As for the results of the survey of the Salesian College, the Graph No. 4 shows that 20% of students cannot access the Web at all; this group of students probably belongs to remote areas of the hills where connectivity the network is not available. The 54% of students relied on data from a mobile phone to access the Internet that had a limit of daily use and required an additional purchase, while 8% of students had access to broadband, 18% had access to mobile and broadband data, so the daily data limit did not apply to them.
Graph Nº 4: Internet access of students
Apart from the limited data quality, Internet speed was not very favorable, it requires students to seek area s surroundings to access a connection more stable. It was found that 66.7% of students had speed Internet "Slow" or "Very slow", they were probably areas of poor network; meanwhile, 33% of students said they had an Internet connection "Fast” or "Very fast".
Regarding access to devices, Graph Nº 5, it was observed that 68% of students used their smartphones to access their online classes, 31% used laptops or desktops and 1% did not have access to no device, these students were likely visiting the nearby internet cafe to attend their online classes. Among these, 11% of students did not have access to front cameras, 21% had access to webcams, and 68% of students used their mobile front cameras for online classes.
Graphic Nº 5: Access to devices for virtual classes
The next aspect is related to familiarity with the software, the Chart No. 6 shows that 10% of students were not familiar with any desktop application to complete and submit their tasks. In such cases, the students sent images of their written tasks at hand, or used space typing in online provided for questions in Moodle. Only 36% were familiar with MS Word, 14% with MS Excel and 29% were familiar with both. Another 21% were also familiar with MS Access. Therefore, most were familiar with the tools required to perform online tasks that were accessible on both mobile devices and desktop computers.
Graphic No. 6: Familiarity with desktop software
There is no limit to the resources available on the Internet, but 61% of the students were not yet familiar with the online portals that provide quality study resources, as shown in Graph Nº 7. This indicates that your reliance on teacher-provided material and commonly used online content likely came from a Google search. Of those who were familiar, 21% referred only to eBlis and the rest were familiar with online platforms such as NPTEL, Wikipedia, and NDR.
Graph Nº 7: Access to virtual bibliographic resources
When asked about the level of difficulty using the current LMS (Moodle), 7% of the students said it was easy, 59% found it moderate, 33% found it difficult to use. Once the formal training in Moodle was given for teachers, they led the students to use each type of activity; for example, a workshop, where it was expected that students corrected the responses sent by their peers. Teachers would lead in each step and similarly for other Moodle activities.
When it comes to social platforms, 8%, 69%, 39% of students spent 1 hour of time on Facebook, Instagram, and TikTok, respectively. While 4%, 12%, 1% passed 2 hours or more and 41%, 18% and 61% did not spend time in Facebook, Instagram and TikTok, respectively.
Looking at the time spent on online learning platforms, 5%, 38%, 39%, and 84% of students spent an hour of time on Wikipedia, EGyankosh, NPTEL, and Moodle respectively. The 6%, 1%, 3% and 7% used 2 hours or more and the 29%, 60%, 61% and 10% did not pass time in Wikipedia, EGyankosh, NPTEL and Moodle, respectively.